Posts Tagged ‘benchmark papers’

Benchmark Papers in Quantitative Genetics (The Bill Hill’s List, part II)

December 19, 2014

As I promised, here’s the second part of the list, that corresponds to the papers commented in volume II. It was particularly difficult to find PDFs for all of them , and some links go to the publisher which sells the paper for a (in my opinion) substantial amount of money. I encourage you to go to the library, find alternative resources (JSTOR,…), or ask a colleague. I have most of them if anyone is interested.

The Hill-Robertson'66 paper, one of my all-time-favourites, is not in the list. Actually, Hill didn't include any of his own papers!

The Hill-Robertson’66 paper, one of my all-time-favourites, is not in the list. Actually, Hill didn’t include any of his own papers!


The Bill Hill’s List, part II

Nature of Selection Response

  • Castle WE (1905) The Mutation Theory of Organic Evolution, from the Standpoint of Animal Breeding. Science 21:521-525. [PDF]
  • Jennings HS (1916) Heredity, Variation and the Results of Selection in the Uniparental Reproduction of DIFFLUGIA CORONA. Genetics 1:407-534. [PDF]
  • Sturtevant AH (1918) An analysis of the effects of selection [PDF]
  • Castle WE (1919) Piebald rats and selection, a correction. Am Nat 53:370-376. [PDF]

Statistical Predictions of Selection Response

  • Lush JL (1935) Progeny Test and Individual Performance as Indicators of an Animal’s Breeding Value. J Dairy Science 18:1-19. [PDF]
  • Hazel LN (1943) The genetic basis for constructing selection indexes. Genetics 28:476-490. [PDF]
  • Falconer DS (1952) The problem of environment and selection. Am Nat 86:293-298. [PDF]
  • Dickerson GE and Hazel LN Effectiveness of selection on progeny performance as a supplement to earlier culling in livestock. J Agric Res 69:459-476. [PDF]
  • Henderson CR (1974) General Flexibility of Linear Model Techniques for Sire Evaluation. J Dairy Science 57:963-972. [PDF]

Genetical Prediction of Selection Response

  • Fisher RA (1930) The fundamental theorem of natural selection. In: The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. Oxford Claredon Press. [PDF]
  • Haldane JBS (1931) Selection intensity as a function of mortality rate. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 27:131-136 [PDF]
  • Comstock RE et al (1949) A Breeding Procedure Designed To Make Maximum Use of Both General and Specific Combining Ability. Agronomy J 41:360-367. [PDF]
  • Robertson A (1960) A theory of limits in artificial selection. Roc Soc (Lon) Proc B153:234-249. [PDF]

Results from Selection Experiments

  • Dudley JW (1977) 76 Generations of selection for oil and protein percentage in maize. Proc Int Conf Quant Genetics Ames IA, ISU Press, 459-473. [PDF]
  • Mather, K (1941) Variation and selection of polygenic characters. J Genet 41: 159–193. [PDF]
  • Lerner IM and Dempster ER (1951) Attenuation of genetic progress under continued selection in poultry. Heredity 5:75–94. [PDF]
  • Robertson FW (1955) Selection response and the properties of genetic variation. Cold Spring Harbor Symp.Quant. Biol. 20:166–177. [PDF]
  • Falconer DS (1960) The genetics of litter size in mice. J Cell Comp Physiol 56(Suppl 1):153–167. [PubMed]
  • Clayton GA et al (1957) An experimental check on quantitative genetical theory. I. Short-term responses to selection. J Genet 55:131–151. [PDF]
  • Bell, AE et al (1955) The evolution of new methods for the improvement of quantitative characters. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 20:197-211. [PDF]

Selection and Maintenance of Genetic Variation

  • Wright S  (1932) The roles of mutation, inbreeding, crossbreeding and selection in evolution. Proc VI Int Congress Genetics 1:356-366 [PDF]
  • Robertson A (1955) Selection in animals: synthesis. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol  20:225229. [PDF]
  • Bulmer MG (1971) The effect of selection on genetic variability. Am Nat, 105:201–211 [PDF]
  • Lande R (1976) The maintenance of genetic variation by mutation in a polygenic character with linked loci. Genet Res (Camb). 26:221-235. [PDF]

Nature of Quantitative Genetic Variation

  • Clayton GA and Robertson A (1955) Mutation and quantitative variation. Am Nat 89:151-158  [PDF]
  • Linney R et al (1971) Variation for metrical characters in Drosophila populations III. The nature of selection. Heredity 27:163–174 [PubMed]
  • “Student” (1934) A calculation of the minimum number of genes in winter’s selection experiment. Ann Eugenics 6:77–82  [PDF]
  • Thoday JM (1961) Location of polygenes. Nature 191:368-370 [PDF]

Benchmark Papers in Quantitative Genetics (The Bill Hill’s List, part I)

July 21, 2014

Despite having a long time interest in evolutionary biology, I deliberately avoided papers on animal breeding and pure quantitative genetics, and I thought they were not relevant to modern evolutionary thought. As I gained more interest in mathematical models I started to read some of these classic papers, and realized that some of the issues I’m interested in (such as genetic linkage) were studied in depth by livestock breeders. Now I regret I didn’t pay more attention to them in the past. However, I have a chance to redeem myself and put some of these papers in my reading list. Which ones? Well, that’s a hard decision, but fortunately I found a list compiled by quantitative geneticist William Hill.

William G. Hill. Picture from the Genetics Society at

William (Bill) Hill was invited to contribute with a  volume to the famous “Benchmark Papers in Genetics” series by Springer. However, he came up with two volumes. I could not find any of them in the University of Essex library so I decided, for the first time, to visit the British Library. They had, indeed, both volumes. I forgot to bring some cash so I couldn’t afford to do copies. Hence, as in the old times, I grabbed a pencil and transcribed the lists of papers from both volumes. It was a hard yet rewarding task. Because most of these papers are quite old, I was confident that I should find them in JSTOR or another similar repository (and I did!).

The best bits of the books are the comments by Bill Hill himself on the papers which, obviously, I cannot reproduce here. However, just the list of papers is of great value, and I thought there may be someone else interested. So, I’ve compiled both lists and looked for PDFs and links to author’s biographies. Here’s the list of papers from volume I. The second bit will be posted soon. Hope you find it useful.


The Bill Hill’s List, part I


  • Pearson K (1904) Mathematical Contributions to the Theory of Evolution – XII. Phil Trans R Soc Lond A 203:359-371. [PDF]
  • Yule GU (1906) On the Theory of Inheritance of Quantitative Compound Characters on the Basis of Mendel’s Laws – A Preliminary Note. In: Proceedings of the International Congress of Genetics. [PDF]
  • Weinberg W (1910) Further contributions to the theory of Inheritance. (English translation by K. Meyer in this compilation) [PDF NOT FOUND]
  • Fisher RA (1918) The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance. Trans R Soc Edinburgh 52:399-433. [PDF]
  • Wright S (1921) Systems of Mating I. The Biometric Relations betweens Parent and Offspring. Genetics 6:111-123. [PDF]
  • Wright S (1921) Systems of Mating II. The Effects of Inbreeding on the Genetic Composition of a Population. Genetics 6:124-143. [PDF]
  • East EM (1910) A Mendelian Interpretation of Variation that is Apparently Continuous. Am Nat 44:65-82. [PDF]
  • Jones DF (1917) Dominance of Linked Factors as a Means of Accounting for Heterosis. Genetics 2:466-479. [PDF]


  • Mather K (1949) The Genetical Theory of of Continuous Variation. Hereditas 35:376-401. [PDF]
  • Wright S (1950) The Genetics of Quantitative Variability. In: Quantitative inheritance. [Google Books]


  • Kempthorne O (1954) The Correlation Between Relatives in a Random Mating Population. Proc R Soc London B 143:102-113. [PDF]
  • Cockerham CC (1956) Effects of Linkage on the Covariances between Relatives. Genetics 41:138-141. [PDF]
  • Willham RL (1963) The Covariance between Relatives for Characters Composed of Components Contributed by Related Individuals. Biometrics 19:18–27. [PDF NOT FOUND]
  • Robertson A (1952) The Effect of Inbreeding on the Variation Due to Recessive Genes. Genetics 37:189–207. [PDF]


  • Lush JL (1940) Intra-Sire Correlations or Regressions of Offspring on Dam as a Method of Estimating Heritability of Characteristics. Ann Proc Am Soc Anim Prod 33:293–301. [PDF]
  • Comstock RE, Robinson HF (1952) Estimation of average dominance of genes. In: Heterosis. [Google Book]
  • Griffing B (1956) A generalised treatment of the use of diallel crosses in quantitative inheritance. Heredity 10:31-50. [PDF]